Dusky Meadow Brown (Hyponephele lycaon)
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2015 photographs highlighted in yellow. Click on any photograph to go to an enlarged picture, or simply scroll down the page.
Lycaon is smaller and with slightly different markings to the ubiquitous Meadow Brown (Maniola jurtina). One key to differentiating between them is the unh "roughness" - lycaon is quite speckled (H&R uses the descriptive but slightly archaic term "irrorated") and jurtina is quite smooth. It is very hard to differentiate between lycaon, which I find quite commonly at altitude from August onward, and the much scarcer Oriental Meadow Brown (H. lupina), and I have addressed this in detail on the lupina page, albeit raising more questions than answers. It is best to have a clear view of the upperside, but I have never found lycaon to settle with wings open, even briefly.
I believe all of these on this page are lycaon, with varying degrees of confidence. The unh varies quite greatly, and the contrast across the post-discal band is more pronounced in the female as in 04_54-27, but less so in 3914 (which is clearly female because of the two unf ocelli (the male does not have the lower ocellus), and virtually non-existent in 3651 which I saw clearly and the two ocelli confirmed it to be female.
Lycaon seems to me to be a butterfly of higher altitudes, unlike jurtina and to some extent lupina. I have never found lycaon at less than 1000m, and mostly at altitudes considerably higher, up to 2000m.
a male, quite dark but with strong orange colouring on the unf.
|26093||M||a very typical male lycaon. It has some degree of submarginal shading.||1400|
|26554||M||a male, with a distinctly greyish colouring, and rather brownish submarginal shading.||1400|
|35897||M||a male, a good example of lycaon with a strong discal line.||1000|
two ocelli are clearly visible (confirming female), the lower with no white centre, discal line very faint, both of the latter features suggest lupina, but again the outer edge of the hindwing is too rounded, and the relatively light scalloping point clearly to lycaon. The large unf s6 ocellus is also a strong indicator of lycaon. Regarding the lower unf ocellus, the books show this as small and blind (i.e. with no white centre or "pupil") for female lupina, but larger and with a white centre for female lycaon. The ocelli of all species seem to vary quite substantially, so the ocelli can only be used as a definitive identifier where it is known to be so. The altitude is way above the range for lupina, removing residual doubt.
the absence of unh markings, especially a discal line, and the square hindwing corner at the anal angle suggest lupina, but the outer edge of the hindwing is perhaps too rounded. It was seen at a location where no lupina records exist within about 30km. However, if 3651 is lycaon, and the evidence strongly indicates this, then lycaon does not have to have a discal line.
|38358||M||the rough texture and heavy but indistinct discal line point very strongly toward lycaon.||1220|
a female, quite distinctively marked.
|26374||F||a female, typical lycaon with grey colouring, rough texture and a clear discal line.||1000|